About this Product. When the Southern states seceded to form their own government in , one of their first moves was to organise an army. The South's fighting men served from the time of their enlistment until the end of the war, receiving poor rations, and even worse clothing - and this despite the fact that one of the first steps taken by the new army was to design a uniform and establish standards for accoutrements and weapons.
In this first of five volumes examining American Civil War armies, Philip Katcher profiles the uniforms issued by the national Confederate government to its artillery, cavalry and infantry troops. Biographical Note. Philip Katcher was born in Los Angeles, California, to parents involved in the film industry. He has also been an active participant in living history activities, especially in the 18th and 19th century periods.
The war acted as a catalyst that encouraged the rapid adoption of horse-drawn machinery and other implements. The rapid spread of recent inventions such as the reaper and mower made the work force efficient, even as hundreds of thousands of farmers were in the army. Many wives took their place and often consulted by mail on what to do; increasingly they relied on community and extended kin for advice and help.
The Union used hundreds of thousands of animals. The Army had plenty of cash to purchase them from farmers and breeders but especially in the early months the quality was mixed. The supply held up, despite an unprecedented epidemic of glanders , a fatal disease that baffled veterinarians. The Treasury started buying cotton during the war, for shipment to Europe and northern mills.
The sellers were Southern planters who needed the cash, regardless of their patriotism. The Northern buyers could make heavy profits, which annoyed soldiers like Ulysses Grant. He blamed Jewish traders and expelled them from his lines in but Lincoln quickly overruled this show of anti-semitism.
Critics said the cotton trade helped the South, prolonged the war and fostered corruption. Lincoln decided to continue the trade for fear that Britain might intervene if its textile manufacturers were denied raw material. Another goal was to foster latent Unionism in Southern border states.
Northern textile manufacturers needed cotton to remain in business and to make uniforms, while cotton exports to Europe provided an important source of gold to finance the war. The Protestant religion was quite strong in the North in the s. The United States Christian Commission sent agents into the Army camps to provide psychological support as well as books, newspapers, food and clothing. Through prayer, sermons and welfare operations, the agents ministered to soldiers' spiritual as well as temporal needs as they sought to bring the men to a Christian way of life.
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Much of the political rhetoric of the era had a distinct religious tone. The Protestant clergy in America took a variety of positions. In general, the pietistic denominations such as the Methodists, Northern Baptists and Congregationalists strongly supported the war effort. Catholics, Episcopalians, Lutherans and conservative Presbyterians generally avoided any discussion of the war, so it would not bitterly divide their membership. The Quakers, while giving strong support to the abolitionist movement on a personal level, refused to take a denominational position.
Some clergymen who supported the Confederacy were denounced as Copperheads, especially in the border regions.
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Many Northerners had only recently become religious following the Second Great Awakening and religion was a powerful force in their lives. No denomination was more active in supporting the Union than the Methodist Episcopal Church. Carwardine  argues that for many Methodists, the victory of Lincoln in heralded the arrival of the kingdom of God in America.
They were moved into action by a vision of freedom for slaves, freedom from the persecutions of godly abolitionists, release from the Slave Power 's evil grip on the American government and the promise of a new direction for the Union. Dissident Methodists left the church. The Methodist family magazine Ladies' Repository promoted Christian family activism.
Its articles provided moral uplift to women and children. It portrayed the War as a great moral crusade against a decadent Southern civilization corrupted by slavery.
Bibliography for Civil War Arkansas
It recommended activities that family members could perform in order to aid the Union cause. Historian Stephen M. Frank reports that what it meant to be a father varied with status and age. He says most men demonstrated dual commitments as providers and nurturers and believed that husband and wife had mutual obligations toward their children.
The war privileged masculinity, dramatizing and exaggerating, father-son bonds. Especially at five critical stages in the soldier's career enlistment, blooding, mustering out, wounding and death letters from absent fathers articulated a distinctive set of 19th-century ideals of manliness.
American Civil War
They showed a Protestant religious tone and "promoted the principles of hard work, obedience, generosity, humility, and piety; trumpeted the benefits of family cohesion; and furnished mild adventure stories, innocent entertainment, and instruction". They promoted patriotism and the Union war aims, fostered kindly attitudes toward freed slaves, blackened the Confederates cause, encouraged readers to raise money for war-related humanitarian funds, and dealt with the death of family members.
It comprised colorful drawings that were turned on wheels and included pre-printed tickets, poster advertisements, and narration that could be read aloud at the show. Caring for war orphans was an important function for local organizations as well as state and local government. It set up orphanages in Davenport, Glenwood and Cedar Falls. The state government funded pensions for the widows and children of soldiers.
8th Arkansas Infantry Regiment
These orphan schools were created to provide housing, care, and education for orphans of Civil War soldiers. They became a matter of state pride, with orphans were paraded around at rallies to display the power of a patriotic schooling.
All the northern states had free public school systems before the war but not the border states. West Virginia set up its system in Over bitter opposition it established an almost-equal education for black children, most of whom were ex-slaves. People loyal to the U. Confederates sometimes styled them "Homemade Yankees". However, Southern Unionists were not necessarily northern sympathizers and many of them, although opposing secession, supported the Confederacy once it was a fact.
East Tennessee never supported the Confederacy, and Unionists there became powerful state leaders, including governors Andrew Johnson and William G. Likewise, large pockets of eastern Kentucky were Unionist and helped keep the state from seceding. Among such units was the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, which served as William Sherman's personal escort on his march to the sea. Southern Unionists were extensively used as anti-guerrilla paramilitary forces.
Besides organized military conflict, the border states were beset by guerrilla warfare. In such a bitterly divided state, neighbors frequently used the excuse of war to settle personal grudges and took up arms against neighbors. Missouri was the scene of over 1, engagements between Union and Confederate forces, and uncounted numbers of guerrilla attacks and raids by informal pro-Confederate bands.
Roving insurgent bands such as Quantrill's Raiders and the men of Bloody Bill Anderson terrorized the countryside, striking both military installations and civilian settlements. Because of the widespread attacks and the protection offered by Confederate sympathizers, Federal leaders issued General Order No. They forced the residents out to reduce support for the guerrillas.
Union cavalry could sweep through and track down Confederate guerrillas, who no longer had places to hide and people and infrastructure to support them. On short notice, the army forced almost 20, people, mostly women, children and the elderly, to leave their homes. Many never returned and the affected counties were economically devastated for years after the end of the war. Some marauding units became organized criminal gangs after the war. Vigilante groups appeared in remote areas where law enforcement was weak, to deal with the lawlessness left over from the guerrilla warfare phase.
For example, the Bald Knobbers were the term for several law-and-order vigilante groups in the Ozarks.
In some cases, they too turned to illegal gang activity. In response to the growing problem of locally organized guerrilla campaigns throughout and , in June , Maj. Stephen G. Burbridge was given command over the state of Kentucky. This began an extended period of military control that would last through early , beginning with martial law authorized by President Abraham Lincoln. To pacify Kentucky, Burbridge rigorously suppressed disloyalty and used economic pressure as coercion. His guerrilla policy, which included public execution of four guerrillas for the death of each unarmed Union citizen, caused the most controversy.