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Residual toxicity of acid mine drainage-contaminated sediment to stream macroinvertebrates: relative contribution of acidity vs. Water Air Soil Pollut. Eggleton, J. A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events.

A new approach for the modelling of sediment reworking induced by a macrobenthic community. Acta Biotheor. Gallon, C. Surviving in anoxic surroundings: how burrowing aquatic insects create an oxic microhabitat. North Am. Gerhardt, A. Macro-invertebrate functional groups in freshwater and marine sediments: a common mechanistic classification. Vie et Milieu 53, — Hillebrand, H. Biodiversity in a complex world: consolidation and progress in functional biodiversity research. Hunting, E. Effects of copper on invertebrate-sediment interactions.

Invertebrate footprints on detritus processing, bacterial community structure, and spatiotemporal redox profiles. Jonsson, M. Importance of species identity and number for process rates within different stream invertebrate functional feeding groups.

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Kaster, J. A convoluted respiratory exchange surface in Tubibifex tubifex Tubificidae. Kwok, K. Sediment quality guidelines: challenges and opportunities for improving sediment management. Mermillod-Blondin, F. Functional diversity among 3 detritivorous hyporheic invertebrates: an experimental study in microcosms. Milani, D. The relative sensitivity of four benthic invertebrates to metals in spiked-sediment exposures and application to contaminated field sediment. Nogaro, G. Ecosystem engineers at the sediment-water interface: bioturbation and consumer-substrate interaction.

Oecologia , — Pang, J. Influence of bioturbation on bioavailability and toxicity of PAHs in sediment from an electronic waste recycling site in South China. Penttinen, O.

Status Report: Freshwater Sediment Criteria Development Project

Preliminary study to compare body residues and sublethal energetic responses in benthic invertebrates exposed to sediment-bound 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. Roig, N. Assessment of sediment ecotoxicological status as a complementary tool for the evaluation of surface water quality: the Ebro River Basin case study. Roman, Y. Chronic toxicity of copper to five benthic invertebrates in laboratory-formulated sediment: sensitivity comparison and preliminary risk assessment.

Simpson, S. Oxidation of acid-volatile sulfide in surface sediments increases the release and toxicity of copper to the benthic amphipod Melita plumulosa. Chemosphere 88, — Suedel, B. Experimental factors that may affect toxicity of aqueous and sediment-bound copper to freshwater organisms. Taylor, K. Sediments in urban river basins: a review of sediment—contaminant dynamics in an environmental system conditioned by human activities.

Soils Sediments 9, — US EPA Species Sensitivity Distribution Generator. Vandegehuchte, M. Whole sediment toxicity tests for metal risk assessments: on the importance of equilibration and test design to increase ecological relevance.

Vangheluwe, M. Improving sediment-quality guidelines for nickel: development and application of predictive bioavailability models to assess chronic toxicity of nickel in freshwater sediments. Walshe, B.

The function of haemoglobin in relation to filter feeding in leaf-mining chironomid larvae. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Wang, W. Prediction of metal toxicity in aquatic organisms. Chinese Sci. Keywords: benthic invertebrates, bioturbation, species specific sensitivity, sediment contamination, SSD. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

Arsenic in the system may have originated as a waste product of gold-mining activities whereby gold was extracted from arsenical pyrite Durand, ; Blowes et al. The presence of arsenic at Site 5 could be attributed to discharge from the waste-water treatment works WWTW entering the TRB system upstream of Site 5, as wastewaters tend to contain arsenic Sullivan, Arsenic levels were below the detection limit in the sediment at the reference site. Sediment from Site 1 and 2 contained calcium above the UC.

In comparison to the first 4 sites, the reference site presented a much lower calcium concentration. Higher concentrations were found downstream, with a spike at Site 6. A possible explanation for this could be due to chromium contamination along the Honingklipspruit as seen with Site 7 , conveying chromium into the TRB system upstream of Site 6.

However, chromium may have not been in a bioavailable form. The UC level for iron was exceeded at all sites, except Site 5 Table 3. Iron is a major element of the earth's crust and therefore may occur naturally at high concentrations in sediments DWAF, Despite this, elevated levels may become prevalent as a result of AMD Durand, Iron is an essential micronutrient for organisms, but toxic effects may arise depending on the state of iron, i.

The iron concentration at the reference site was much lower compared to the first 4 sites, and comparable to the levels observed at sites further downstream from the mine. Nickel is an essential trace element but high levels may prove fatal to organisms. Sulphur was present in sediment sampled at all sites, and elevated levels were observed at Sites 1 to 4.

Contaminated Sediments in Freshwater Systems

A linear decrease in sulphur suggested AMD as the origin as sulphates are released from pyrite Durand, Sulphur in the sediment could also be related to the sulphates and contaminant-sorbed sulphates that have been deposited. The sulphur concentration at the reference site was significantly lower when compared to sites closer to the mine. Uranium was present at Sites 2, 3 and 4 Table 3. Uranium concentrations were below the detection limit at Sites 5, 6 and 7 reference site.

Phytotoxicity was estimated as a function of seed germination lethal endpoint Fig. The Phytotoxkit bioassay met the test validity criteria for germination and root growth. Sediment from Sites 2 and 3 were most toxic to seed germination, whilst sediment sampled further downstream of the LoD Site 6 presented lower toxicity responses. Site 1, although closest to the LoD, only presented a slight inhibitory effect on L. No significant inhibition of seed germination occurred at Sites 4 to 6 and the reference site Site 7.

GreenStract Sediment Remediation Trial - Flow Loop

The overall trend of expressed lethal toxicity indicated elevated toxicity at the sites closer to the mine LoD, and decreasing downstream. A similar observation could be seen when analysing data generated from root length inhibition responses Fig. The highest inhibitory effect was observed at Sites 2 and 3 for all three plant species. Root length stimulation occurred with S. Site 6 presented the lowest phytotoxicity with root length stimulation occurring for L.

Although phytotoxicity of sediment was low at Site 1, the two subsequent sites presented extremely high toxicities followed by a general linear decrease in root length inhibition from Site 4 to 6, inferring sub-lethal toxicity caused by AMD. Significant root length inhibition also occurred at the reference site, as root length inhibition for L. Expressed toxicity by plants can be attributed to sediment organic matter Oleszczuk, ; Bakopoulou et al.

High organic matter content in sediments may increase the absorption potential of metals, thereby increasing the potential bioavailability Czerniawska-Kusza and Kusza, Organic material binds metals forming soluble and insoluble complexes and depending on the interactions that occur, metals may or may not be bioavailable Burton, Plant growth may be stimulated by nitrogen and phosphorus while inhibited by ammonia Baran and Tarnawski, Phyto-stimulation occurs in the presence of nutrient-rich sediments and may result in the elimination of the inhibitory effects of heavy metals on plant growth Czerniawska-Kusza and Kusza, Sub-lethal and lethal phytotoxicity was higher at sites closer to the mine, whilst phyto-stimulation occurred with sediments sampled further downstream of the mine.

In addition, the responses corresponded to the particle grain size, i. Therefore, the toxicity expressed with the Phytotoxkit to the sediment samples may be related to contaminants in the sediment and the high percentage of small sediment particles, which supported the findings of Czerniawska-Kusza et al. Phytotoxicity effects expressed in relation to metal contaminants are complex and depend on the remobilisation mechanisms that control metal bioavailability for root uptake Czerniawska-Kusza et al.

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Baran and Tarnawski also found a positive correlation between metal concentrations and toxicity for L. Phytotoxicity at Site 1 was lower than at Sites 2 and 3. Potassium is fundamental in metabolic reactions and plant growth Czerniawska-Kusza and Kusza, Therefore, phyto-stimulation may have occurred at some of the sites such as Site 6 as a result of high potassium concentrations coupled with other nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen Czerniawska-Kusza and Kusza, ; Baran and Tarnawski, Sediments closer to the mine LoD were therefore toxic to primary producers in the ecosystem.

In previous studies by Durand and Bell et al. The trend in sub-lethal growth inhibition and lethal mortality toxicity was comparable to the Phytotoxkit responses; higher expressed toxicities closer to the mine and decreasing linearly towards the downstream sites. At Sites 5, 6 and 7 growth stimulation occurred, suggesting that the sediments from these sites were favourable for the survival and growth of the ostracods. Although some metals were elevated at Site 1, and higher than the concentrations observed at Sites 2 and 3, the lack of effect could be due to metal bioavailability Havel and Talbott, This suggested that sediment-bound contaminants could be the main cause of toxicity.