It not only survived the collapse of European socialism but it is still young, it keeps up a fight without quarter against American imperialism and has been the spiritual guide for many generations and peoples. Then: Cuba, a poor and blockaded country the pretexts used by Stalin to use this model in the USSR : Has it lasted 45 years under the banner of socialism in one country? If this is so: Is this theory valid? The USSR never accepted the term soviet revolution, except at the beginning when it was the Bolshevik Revolution, the most beautiful revolution in the world.
In these usages lies the true essence of the authenticity of my revolution and of its right to continue forward. The USSR, with all its rockets, oil and economic development, stopped being a revolution, signing its own death warrant. The cornerstones of a socialist revolution are internationalism and the social class struggle without quarter. III—Internationalism in the development of the Cuban nation.
But to understand the bond that exists between the Cuban socialist revolution and internationalism we arrive at a happy paradox: A universal outlook and social justice have been cornerstones in the formation of the Cuban nation. In this manner, the Cuban nation, perhaps hidden by a love for the Homeland, has its roots in two other continents with the flavor offered by American lands. In our origin, to begin with and in a very short time, three continents blended.
This union becomes the substrate of our identity shaped by an exceptional anti-imperialism:. From the beginning of the wars for Independence, Antonio Maceo, military leader in the liberation wars against Spain, mysteriously expressed that the only way he would be found fighting on the side of the Spaniards would be if the United States tried to take over Cuba. He knew intuitively who, in the long run, would prove to be the real enemy without having to study socio-political treatises. He was respected and accepted without ever having to show his passport even once.
Revolutionaries all over the world still owe this man careful study of his work if we really want to understand the still controversial transition from the XIX to XX centuries. Is it a different thing from Cuba? And what am I, what land ties me down? That is why the second stage of the struggle, the revolution of the s where the young people, in addition to fighting the tyrant, Machado, had another front that was based on internationalist ideals: the Spanish republic. When the government of the moment did not allow a ship from the young soviet republic to dock, Julio Antonio Mella of whom Fidel said that this was the Cuban who had done the most in the least time and was the founder of the first Communist Party took a boat and, representing the Cuban people, reached the ship and joined in brotherhood with all the crew.
This young man, incidentally, was expelled from the party he founded. At the time, it was still possible to talk of the International and it restored his membership.
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He died murdered in Mexico. I am aware of what is going to be my true fate. And, of course, we still have the image of Che, the classic symbol of true internationalism. This comrade relates that Che looked at him with half a smile.
Only then did the comrade realize he was talking to an Argentinean. Che did not have the same experience in Bolivia. On the other hand, I do not believe that there has been a better example of the rigorous application of the permanent revolution. Social Justice: the other cornerstone of the Cuban nation Our war of independence was belated in comparison to the other American nations. This allowed, however, the leaders to mature in the experiences of European revolutions and put forth very advanced and radical principles in what was supposedly a mere war for independence.
Contrary to what occurred with the Declaration of Independence of the United States in , that deleted the principle of abolishing slavery, which would cost that country another war in the following century, the insurrection for the liberty of Cuba is proclaimed together with the abolition of slavery. They were two arms of the same body and neither was possible without the other. I insist that his contribution to universal politics and philosophy are a pending subject for those of us who try to understand the course of history. The basis of this Party goes beyond the mere independence of the island.
Its projection, its internal organization put it in the category of a party of a new type. Its main recruiting ground was the working class! Tobacco workers in exile. The differences between Europe and America will make the superficial reader see incompatible points between the two.
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For the careful and patient reader, absolute and common truths will be revealed mysteriously. This revolutionary Party would give birth to the Cuban Communist Party 30 years later. It would be redundant to talk about the vocation for social justice of the revolution that Fidel Castro leads. As simply one more detail to be analyzed in greater depth is the manifesto, History Will Absolve Me. I still cannot understand how imperialism failed to see that this was an authentically communist document.
The social problems are highlighted and a class profile of the Cuban people made that would leave breathless the most orthodox socialist anywhere in the world. This document was written 50 years ago and still maintains its freshness and most demanding logical order. Six years later, against all predictions, joining in its spirit social justice and internationalism, a profoundly socialist revolution triumphs under the very noses of imperialism, as someone once said.
Imperialism is very close to us.
“Socialism In One Country”
That is why simply by existing Cuba makes its greatest contribution to the cause of universal socialism. I believe we have made serious mistakes. This was before the cheap jargon of Gorbachov about perestroika and glasnost. You just have to see where these types ended up.
It would be interesting to analyze who they were heirs to. As dialectics teaches us through unity and the clash of opposites, the counterrevolution is an entity that grows in the shadow and is waiting for the first misstep. Castro was not the democratic savior he had seemed.
In May , he began confiscating privately owned agricultural land , including land owned by Americans , openly provoking the United States government. In the spring of , Mr. Under pressure from Congress, President Dwight D. Eisenhower cut the American sugar quota from Cuba, forcing Mr. Castro to look for new markets. He turned to the Soviet Union for economic aid and political support.
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Thus began a half-century of American antagonism toward Cuba. Finally, in , he gave the United States 48 hours to reduce the staff of its embassy in Havana to 18 from A frustrated Eisenhower broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba and closed the embassy on the Havana seacoast. The diplomatic stalemate lasted until , when embassies were finally reopened in both Havana and Washington. During his two years in the mountains, Mr.
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Castro had sketched a social revolution whose aim, at least on the surface, seemed to be to restore the democracy that Mr. Castro promised free elections and vowed to end American domination of the economy and the working-class oppression that he said it had caused. Despite having a law degree, Mr. Castro had no real experience in economics or government. At the time, Cuba was a playground for rich American tourists and gangsters where glaring disparities of wealth persisted, although the country was one of the most economically advanced in the Caribbean.
After taking power in , Mr. Castro put together a cabinet of moderates, but it did not last long. But when Mr. Pazos openly criticized Mr. In place of Mr. Pazos, Mr. Castro named Che Guevara, an Argentine doctor who knew nothing about monetary policy but whose revolutionary credentials were unquestioned.
Opposition to the Castro government began to grow in Cuba, leading peasants and anti-Communist insurgents to take up arms against it. The Escambray Revolt , as it was called, lasted from to , when it was crushed by Mr. As the first waves of Cuban exiles arrived in Miami and northern New Jersey after the revolution, many were intent on overthrowing the man they had once supported.
Their number would eventually total a million, many from what had been, proportionately, the largest middle class in Latin America. The Central Intelligence Agency helped train an exile army to retake Cuba by force.